1 a large body of water constituting a principal part of the hydrosphere
2 anything apparently limitless in quantity or volume [syn: sea]
Etymologyoccean (later reborrowed from océan), from Oceanus, from Ancient Greek (okeanos) ‘great river supposed to encompass the earth’ (personified as a deity), later ‘outer sea, as opposed to Mediterranean’.
- Rhymes: -əʊʃən
- One of the five large bodies of water separating the continents.
- An immense expanse; any vast space or quantity without apparent limits; as, the boundless ocean of eternity; an ocean of affairs.
- Albanian: oqeani
- Belarusian: акіян
- Bosnian: okean
- Bulgarian: океан
- Catalan: oceà
- Chinese: 洋 (yáng), 大洋 (dàyáng), 海洋 (hǎiyáng)
- Croatian: ocean
- Czech: oceán
- Dutch: oceaan
- Esperanto: oceano
- Finnish: valtameri
- French: océan
- German: Ozean
- Greek: ωκεανός (oceanós)
- Hebrew: יָם (yam)
- Hindi: महासागर (mahāsāgar), समन्दर (samandar), समुन्दर (samundar), अम्बुधि (ambudhi)
- Hungarian: óceán
- Icelandic: haf , sjór , ægir (poetic), úthaf
- Ido: oceano
- Italian: oceano
- Japanese: 大洋 (たいよう, taiyō), 海洋 (かいよう, kaiyō)
- Korean: 대양 (daeyang)
- Latin: oceanus
- Lithuanian: okeanas , vandenynas
- Macedonian: океан
- Malay: segara
- Malayalam: സമുദ്രം (samudram), സാഗരം (saagaram)
- Maltese: oċean
- Maori: moana, moana pīpipi, moana waiwai
- Old English: holm, ġeofon , gārsecg
- Persian: (okeānūs)
- Polish: ocean
- Portuguese: oceano
- Rohingya: cáigor
- Russian: океан (okeán)
- Samoan: vasa
- Scottish Gaelic: cuan , fairge , tàbh , cuan mòr
- Slovak: oceán
- Slovene: ocean
- Spanish: océano
- Swedish: ocean
- Telugu: మహా సముద్రం (mahaa samudram)
- Tupinambá: paranã
- Turkish: okyanus
- Ukrainian: океан
- Urdu: (bahr), (muhiyet), (samandar)
- Vietnamese: hải, biển
An ocean (from Greek , Okeanos (Oceanus)) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt.
OverviewThough generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean. This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean (which is sometimes subsumed as the southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans), and the Arctic Ocean (which is sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic). The Pacific and Atlantic may be further subdivided by the equator into northerly and southerly portions. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also some smaller bodies of saltwater that are on land and not interconnected with the World Ocean, such as the Aral Sea, and the Great Salt Lake – though they may be referred to as 'seas', they are actually salt lakes.
Geologically, an ocean is an area of oceanic crust covered by water. Oceanic crust is the thin layer of solidified volcanic basalt that covers the Earth's mantle where there are no continents. From this perspective, there are three oceans today: the World Ocean and the Caspian and Black Seas, the latter two having been formed by the collision of Cimmeria with Laurasia. The Mediterranean Sea is very nearly a discrete ocean, being connected to the World Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, and indeed several times over the last few million years movement of the African continent has closed the strait off entirely. The Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean through the Bosporus, but this is in effect a natural canal cut through continental rock some 7,000 years ago, rather than a piece of oceanic sea floor like the Strait of Gibraltar.
Physical propertiesThe area of the World Ocean is 361 million square kilometers (139 million sq mi), its volume is approximately 1.3 billion cubic kilometers (310 million cu mi), and its average depth is 3,790 meters (12,430 ft). This does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea.
The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1021 kilograms, which is about 0.023% of the Earth's total mass. Less than 2% is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, mostly in the ocean.
A common misconception is that the oceans are blue primarily because the sky is blue. In fact, water has a very slight blue color that can only be seen in large volumes. While the sky's reflection does contribute to the blue appearance of the surface, it is not the primary cause. The primary cause is the absorption by the water molecules' nuclei of red photons from the incoming light, the only known example of color in nature resulting from vibrational, rather than electronic, dynamics.
Travel on the surface of the ocean through the use of boats dates back to prehistoric times, but only in modern times has extensive underwater travel become possible.
The deepest point in the ocean is the Marianas Trench located in the Pacific Ocean near the Northern Mariana Islands. It has a maximum depth of 10,923 meters (35,838 ft) . It was fully surveyed in 1951 by the British naval vessel, "Challenger II" which gave its name to the deepest part of the trench, the "Challenger Deep". In 1960, the Trieste successfully reached the bottom of the trench, manned by a crew of two men.
Much of the bottom of the world's oceans are unexplored and unmapped. A global image of many underwater features larger than 10 kilometers (6 mi) was created in 1995 based on gravitational distortions of the nearby sea surface.
The oceans are essential to transportation: most of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports. Important ship canals include the Saint Lawrence Seaway, Panama Canal, and Suez Canal. They are also an important source of valuable food items for the fishing industry. Some of these are shrimp, fish, crabs and lobster.
Continental drift has reconfigured the Earth's oceans, joining and splitting ancient oceans to form the current oceans. Ancient oceans include:
- Bridge River Ocean, the ocean between the ancient Insular Islands and North America.
- Iapetus Ocean, the southern hemisphere ocean between Baltica and Avalonia.
- Panthalassa, the vast world ocean that surrounded the Pangaea supercontinent.
- Rheic Ocean
- Slide Mountain Ocean, the ocean between the ancient Intermontane Islands and North America.
- Tethys Ocean, the ocean between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia.
- Khanty Ocean, the ocean between Baltica and Siberia.
- Mirovia, the ocean that surrounded the Rodinia supercontinent.
- Paleo-Tethys Ocean, the ocean between Gondwana and the Hunic terranes.
- Proto-Tethys Ocean,
- Pan-African Ocean, the ocean that surrounded the Pannotia supercontinent.
- Superocean, the ocean that surrounds a global supercontinent.
- Ural Ocean, the ocean between Siberia and Baltica.
- See also Extraterrestrial liquid water
There is currently much debate over whether Mars once had an ocean of water in its northern hemisphere, and over what happened to it if it did; recent findings by the Mars Exploration Rover mission indicate it had some long-term standing water in at least one location, but its extent is not known.
Astronomers believe that Venus had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history. If they existed, all trace of them seems to have vanished in later resurfacing.
Liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, though it may be more accurate to describe them as "lakes" rather than an "ocean". The Cassini-Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. A more recent fly-by of Titan made by Cassini has produced radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes near the polar regions where it is colder. Titan is also thought likely to have a subterranean water ocean under the mix of ice and hydrocarbons that forms its outer crust.
Beyond the solar system, Gliese 581 c is at the right distance from its sun for liquid water to exist on the planet's surface. Since it does not transit its sun, there is no way to know if there is any water there. HD 209458b may have water vapour in its atmosphere - this is currently being disputed. Gliese 436 b is believed to have 'hot ice'. Neither of these planets are cool enough for liquid water: but if water molecules exist there, they are likely to be found also on planets at a suitable temperature.
MythologyThe original concept of "ocean" goes back to notions of Mesopotamian and Indo-European mythology, imagining the world to be encircled by a great river. Okeanos, "Ωκεανός" in Greek, reflects the ancient Greek observation that a strong current flowed off Gibraltar and their subsequent assumption that it was a great river. (Compare also Samudra from Hindu mythology and Jörmungandr from Norse mythology). The world was imagined to be enclosed by a celestial ocean above the heavens, and an ocean of the underworld below (compare Rasā, Varuna).
- Arctic Ocean
- Atlantic Ocean
- Indian Ocean
- International Maritime Organization
- Law of the Sea
- Marginal sea
- Marine biology
- Marine debris
- Mediterranean sea
- Ocean acidification
- Pacific Ocean
- Pelagic zone
- Sea level and sea level rise
- Sea salt
- Sea state
- Seven Seas
- Southern Ocean
- World Ocean Day
- Ocean Explorer - An educational and reference resource from NOAA
- Oceanography Image of the Day - from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
- Ocean Motion - Educational reference and data resource from NASA
- NOS Data Explorer - A portal to obtain NOAA National Ocean Service data
- Science taps into ocean secrets
- Why is the ocean salty?
- Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
- Oceana - Protecting the World's Oceans
- CORE - Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education
- NOPP - National Oceanographic Partnership Program
- NOSB - National Ocean Sciences Bowl
- CoML - Census of Marine Life
- World Ocean Observatory
- Greenpeace Defending our Oceans
- The Last Days of the Ocean, a Mother Jones special report on the state of the ocean
- Ocean Voyager, a five-part journey to save the seas, created by Mother Jones magazine
- The Ocean Conservancy - Advocates for Wild, Healthy Oceans
- NOAA DChart - Plot and download ocean data from your browser or Google Earth
- UN Atlas of the Oceans
- American Fisheries Society
- Cousteau Society
- Marine Environmental Research Institute
- NOAA National Fisheries
- NOAA National Ocean Service
- Ocean Alliance
- Ocean Futures Society
- National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations
- One Fish
- Blue Ocean Institute
- Changing Currents: Charting a Course of Action for the Future of Oceans
- Shuttle Views the Earth: Oceans from Space
ocean in Arabic: محيط (جغرافيا)
ocean in Aragonese: Ozián
ocean in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܐܘܩܝܢܘܣ
ocean in Azerbaijani: Okean
ocean in Bengali: মহাসমুদ্র
ocean in Min Nan: Hái-iûⁿ
ocean in Belarusian: Акіян
ocean in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Акіян
ocean in Central Bicolano: Kadagatan
ocean in Bosnian: Okean
ocean in Breton: Meurvor
ocean in Bulgarian: Световен океан
ocean in Catalan: Oceà
ocean in Chuvash: Океан
ocean in Czech: Oceán
ocean in Welsh: Cefnfor
ocean in Danish: Verdenshave
ocean in German: Ozean
ocean in Estonian: Ookean
ocean in Modern Greek (1453-): Ωκεανός
ocean in Spanish: Océano
ocean in Esperanto: Oceano
ocean in Basque: Ozeano
ocean in Persian: اقیانوس
ocean in French: Océan
ocean in Western Frisian: Oseaan
ocean in Friulian: Ocean
ocean in Galician: Océano
ocean in Classical Chinese: 洋
ocean in Korean: 대양
ocean in Armenian: Օվկիանոս
ocean in Hindi: महासागर
ocean in Croatian: Ocean
ocean in Ido: Oceano
ocean in Igbo: Oke osimiri
ocean in Indonesian: Samudra
ocean in Icelandic: Sjór
ocean in Italian: Oceano
ocean in Hebrew: אוקיינוס
ocean in Javanese: Samodra
ocean in Georgian: ოკეანე
ocean in Swahili (macrolanguage): Bahari
ocean in Haitian: Oseyan
ocean in Lao: ມະຫາສະໝຸດ
ocean in Latin: Oceanus
ocean in Latvian: Okeāns
ocean in Lithuanian: Vandenynas
ocean in Lojban: braxamsi
ocean in Hungarian: Óceán
ocean in Macedonian: Океан
ocean in Malagasy: Ranomasina
ocean in Malayalam: സമുദ്രം
ocean in Marathi: महासागर
ocean in Malay (macrolanguage): Lautan
ocean in Mongolian: Далай
ocean in Dutch: Oceaan
ocean in Japanese: 大洋
ocean in Norwegian: Hav#Verdenshavene
ocean in Norwegian Nynorsk: Verdshav
ocean in Uzbek: Okean
ocean in Low German: Ozean
ocean in Polish: Ocean
ocean in Portuguese: Oceano
ocean in Romanian: Ocean
ocean in Quechua: Mama qucha
ocean in Russian: Океан
ocean in Albanian: Oqeani
ocean in Sicilian: Ocèanu
ocean in Simple English: Ocean
ocean in Slovenian: Ocean
ocean in Serbian: Океан
ocean in Serbo-Croatian: Ocean
ocean in Sundanese: Jaladri
ocean in Swedish: Hav#V.C3.A4rldshav
ocean in Finnish: Meri
ocean in Tagalog: Karagatan
ocean in Telugu: మహాసముద్రము
ocean in Thai: มหาสมุทร
ocean in Vietnamese: Đại dương
ocean in Tajik: Уқёнус
ocean in Turkish: Okyanus
ocean in Ukrainian: Океан
ocean in Venetian: Oceano
ocean in Walloon: Oceyan
ocean in Wolof: Mbàmbulaan
ocean in Yiddish: אקעאן
ocean in Yoruba: Òkun
ocean in Contenese: 海洋
ocean in Chinese: 海洋
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